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AP Chemistry Course Outline

AP Chemistry Course Outline

Course Delivery:

This is designed to provide students with a learning experience equivalent to that of a one-year general chemistry college course. Our AP Chemistry course include those topics regularly covered in a typical general chemistry college course, and differ from the usual first high school course in chemistry in respect to the kind of textbook(s) used, the range and depth of topics covered, the emphasis on chemical calculations and the mathematical formulation of principles, the nature and variety of laboratory work done by students, and the time and effort required of students.

Schools’ AP Chemistry courses are typically designed to be taken by students after the completion of a first course in high school chemistry and a second-year algebra course. Students are encouraged to keep copies of their laboratory work for use in determining college credit or placement.

Materials:

Zumdahl, S. S. Chemistry, 7th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2007.
Home School Chemistry Laboratory Kit
Options:http://www.thehomescientist.com/kits/CK01/ck01-main.html,
http://www.hometrainingtools.com/chemistry-equipment-kit/p/CE-KIT01/
Scientific calculator

Course Description:

This AP Chemistry course is designed to be the equivalent of the general chemistry course usually taken during the first year of college. For most students, the course enables them to undertake, as a freshman, second year work in the chemistry sequence at their institution or to register in courses in other fields where general chemistry is a prerequisite. This course is structured around the six big ideas articulated in the AP Chemistry curriculum framework provided by the College Board and listed below. A special emphasis will be placed on the seven science practices, which capture important aspects of the work that scientists engage in, with learning objectives that combine content with inquiry and reasoning skills. AP Chemistry is open to all students that have completed 
a year of chemistry who wish to take part in a rigorous and academically challenging course.

Big Idea 1:The chemical elements are fundamental building materials of matter, and all matter can be understood in terms of arrangements of atoms.

Big Idea 2: Chemical and physical properties of materials can be explained by the structure and the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules and the forces between them.

Big Idea 3:Changes in matter involve the rearrangement and/or reorganization of

atoms and/or the transfer of electrons.

Big Idea 4: Rates of chemical reactions are determined by details of the molecular

collisions.

Big Idea 5:The laws of thermodynamics describe the essential role of energy and explain and predict the direction of changes in matter.

Big Idea 6:Any bond or intermolecular attraction that can be formed can be broken. These two processes are in a dynamic competition, sensitive to initial conditions and external perturbations.

The science practices for AP Chemistry are designed to get the students to think and act like scientists. The science practices are:

Science Practice 1:The student can use representations and models to communicate scientific phenomena and solve scientific problems.

Science Practice 2: The student can use mathematics appropriately.

Science Practice 3: The student can engage in scientific questioning to extend thinkingor to guide investigations within the context of the AP course.

Science Practice 4: The student can plan and implement data collection strategies in relation to a particular scientific question.

Science Practice 5: The student can perform data analysis and evaluation of evidence.

Science Practice 6: The student can work with scientific explanations and theories.

Science Practice 7: The student is able to connect and relate knowledge across various scales, concepts, and representations in and across domains.

Assignments and Grading:

Reading: All students are expected to complete the assigned reading selections, which will include chapters from the textbook and supplemental articles as determined by the instructor. Reading assignments will be combined with activities and discussion questions designed to reinforce student comprehension of the concepts introduced.

Writing:In addition to lab notebooks, students will be expected to complete written reports of their experiments which explain the problem presented; state a hypothesis; outline the procedure to be followed; chart, graph, or narrate the data recorded; discuss how the data was analyzed; and reach a conclusion regarding the experiment.

Tests: Content area tests will be designed to prepare students for the AP Exam and will include multiple-choice questions, laboratory-related questions, and free-response questions.

Labs: Recognizing that the laboratory experience is fundamental to student achievement in AP Chemistry, every effort is made to engage students in every aspect of the experiment process. Although the virtual format of our school limits the students’ hands-on experience, at least 25% of the instructional time for the course will be spent conducting wet labs. The labs in this course will be a mixture of virtual and hands-on with some minimal supplies being required for the hands-on experiments.

Students are required to maintain a bound lab notebook and to submit a scanned copy of the lab for each completed experiment. While conducting virtual labs data must still be collected and placed in the laboratory notebook. Lab procedures and directions may be printed from the class and pasted into the laboratory notebook.

Workload:Students should expect to spend a minimum of 15-20 hours a week studying and completing the course readings, assignments, labs, and examinations. Students must be self-motivated and inclined to keep a regular schedule in order to not only keep up with, but to achieve success in this rigorous course.

Resources:

SAS Curriculum Pathways. SAS Institute, 2014. Web. 20 May 2015.
http://www.sascurriculumpathways.com/portal/

PhET Interactive Simulation. University of Colorado, Boulder, 2013. Web 20 May 2015.
http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulations/category/chemistry/general

ChemCollective. National Science Digital Library (NSDL). Web. 20 May 2015
http://chemcollective.org/home

Virtual Chemistry Experiments.Davidson College Chemistry Resources. Web. 20 May 2015
http://www.chm.davidson.edu/vce/index.html

Thompson, Robert Bruce. Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments. Maker Media, 2008.

Topics and Labs:

Chapter 1: Course Introduction
  • Class expectations
  • How to write a lab report
  • How to prepare for the AP exam

Unit 1: Foundations

Chapter 2: Math & Measurements

Topics:

  • Scientific notation
  • Significant Figures
  • Metric unit conversions & dimensional analysis
  • Percent error
  • Graphing your results
  • Estimation
  • Solving equations

Resources:

  • 3 Textbook: 1.2-1.6
  • Activities:v Students will usepractice problems to review and refine their math skills.

Labs:

  • Ø Think Like a
  • Scientist: Students use basic tools to make measurements and then check
    the accuracy of their measurements.
Chapter 3: Building Blocks of Matter
Big Idea 1: The chemical elements are fundamental building materials of matter, and all matter can be understood in terms of arrangements of atoms.

Topics:

  • Atomic structure
  • Dalton’s atomic theory
  • Atomic models
  • Electron configurations
  • Molecules and Ions
  • Coulomb’s Law

Resources:

  • 3 Textbook: 2.1-2.5,7.1-7.11
  • 3 Virtual ChemistryExperiments
  • 3 SAS CurriculumPathways
  • Activities:
  • v Students use a mass spectrometer printout of the relative masses of isotopes of an element to
    determine the average atomic mass of the element.
  • v A simulation from Virtual Chemistry Experiments is used to allow students to compare the sizes of atomic orbitals of different quantum numbers. These comparisons are used to
    deduce the relationship between quantum number, the size of the atomic orbital, and its shape.

Labs:

  • Ø ElectronTransitions: Students will use a SAS Curriculum Pathways virtual lab to investigate energy absorption and emission for single- and multi-electron atoms.(SP 1, 3, 5, 7)
  • Ø Discharge Lampsand Flame Tests: Students will conduct an at home flame test from Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments. They will use a PhET simulation to apply this information to discharge lamps and how they work. Students will be able to perform this hands-on experiment at home.(SP 1, 3, 5, 6)
Chapter 4: Periodic Law
Big Idea 1:The chemical elements are fundamental building materials of matter, and all matter can be understood in terms of arrangements of atoms.

Topics:

  • Introduction to the periodic table
  • Periodic trend
    • Atomic/ionic radii
    • Ionization energy
    • Ion charge
    • Electronegativity
  • What causes the periodic trends
  • Using the trends to predict properties

Resources:

  • 3 Textbook: 7.10-7.13
  • Activities:
  • vStudents are given a list of imaginary elements, accompanied by each element’s physical data, including atomic mass. The students are asked to construct a possible periodic table from these elements and predict the characteristics of an unknown element from its probable place on this new periodic table. Students must be able to justify the arrangement of their elements on the periodic table.

Unit 2: Talking about Matter

Chapter 5: Naming Matter
Big Idea 2:Chemical and physical properties of materials can be explained by the structure and the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules and the forces between them.

Topics:

  • Review Nomenclature:
    • Ionic
    • Covalent
    • Acids
  • Organic Compounds

Resources:

  • 3 Textbook:2.8, 22.1-22.4
  • Activities:
  • v Students will practice both naming compounds and writing formulas for compounds.
Chapter 6: Counting Matter
Big Idea 3:Changes in matter involve the rearrangement and/or reorganization of atoms and/or the transfer of electrons.

Topics:

  • Compositional stoichiometry
    • Mole-mass conversions
    • Mole-particle conversions
  • Percent composition
  • Empirical and molecular formulas
  • Molarity
  • Dilution

Resources:

  • 3 Textbook: 3.1-3.6,4.3
  • 3 ChemCollectiveVirtual Labs

Labs:

  • Ø Using SportsDrinks to Explore Concentration: Students use a chemcollectiveautograded virtual lab in order to apply what they have learned about concentration and become more familiar with the virtual lab system. (SP 1, 2, 5, 6)
  • Ø Cola and SucroseConcentration Problem: The students will use a chemcollective virtual lab to prepare a sucrose solution for a soda recipe. They will calculate the concentration of their solution in terms of molarity, percent mass, and density. Finally, the students can compare their solution to that of a generic cola solution in order to determine which has a higher concentration of sugar. (SP 1, 2, 3, 5, 6)
  • Ø Guided Inquiry –Propertiesof Pennies:In this experiment, students will devise a procedure to determine the average density of a sample of pennies. Students will communicate results, hypothesize reasons to explain discrepancies in experimental results, and using known densities of pure metals, calculate the
    percent composition of pennies.(SP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)
Chapter 7: Describing Matter
Big Idea 2:Chemical and physical properties of materials can be explained by the structure and the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules and the forces between them.

Topics:

  • States of Matter
    • Phase changes
  • Classification of Matter
  • Forces between molecules
  • Solutions
    • Types
    • Formation
    • Rate of dissolution
    • Vapor pressure

Resources:

  • 3 Textbook: 1.9, 10.1-10.2,11.1-11.4, 11.8
  • 3 Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments
  • Activities:
  • v Based on the KoolAid Chromatography lab, students write an analysis on the GRAS (generally regarded as safe) requirements, the use of, the chemical structure of, and problems associated with certain food dyes.

Labs:

  • Ø Kool-AidChromatography: Students will review and practice techniques for the separation of solutions. Students will be able to perform this hands-on experiment at home.(SP 1, 2, 5, 6)
  • Ø Determine theFormula of a Hydrate: From Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry
    Experiments, student will find the empirical formula of a hydrate using
    items they can obtain at home.(SP 1, 2, 3, 5, 6)
Chapter 8: Gas Laws
Big Idea 2:Chemical and physical properties of materials can be explained by the structure and the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules and the forces between them.

Topics:

  • Kinetic Molecular Theory
  • Individual gas laws
  • Combined gas laws
  • Ideal gas law
  • Dalton’s Partial Pressures
  • Real Gases

Resources:

  • 3 Textbook: 5.1-5.10
  • 3 PhET InteractiveSimulations

Labs:

  • Ø Guided Inquiry – Solvingfor R: Students are asked to design and conduct an experiment to find the gas law constant given a set list of materials. Students will be able to perform this hands-on experiment at home. (SP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)
  • Ø Guided Inquiry – GasLaws: Students will conduct a PhET virtual lab that allows them to design experiments to measure the relationships between different properties of gases and to allow them to derive the gas laws. (SP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)
Chapter 9: Thermodynamics
Big Idea 5:The laws of thermodynamics describe the essential role of energy and explain and predict the direction of changes in matter.

Topics:

  • Temperature vs heat
  • Transfer of energy
  • Calorimetry
  • Enthalpy of formation

Resources:

  • 3 Textbook: 6.1-6.4

Labs:

  • Ø Guided Inquiry – DetermineHeat Capacity of an Unknown Metal: Students use a coffee-cup calorimeter at home to calculate the heat capacity of an unknown metal. They use this value to identify their metal. Students will be able to perform this hands-on
    experiment at home.(SP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)

Unit 3: Interactions Between Matter

Chapter 10: Bonding
Big Idea 2:Chemical and physical properties of materials can be explained by the structure and the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules and the forces between them.

Topics:

  • Physical and chemical changes
  • Inter and intramolecular forces
  • Types of bonds
    • And the forces that cause them
  • Properties causes by the type of bond
    • Types of solids

Resources:

  • 3 Textbook:8.1-8.8,
    10.3-10.7
  • Activities:v Students use the structures of various compounds to explain why they exist in different physical states at different temperatures.

Labs:

  • Ø Guided Inquiry – Physicalor Chemical?: Students are given a list of 8 different types of changes that they need to observe. They design and conduct experiments using materials they have at home. The data collected is used to develop a set of criteria for determining whether a given change is chemical or physical. Students will be able to perform this hands-on experiment at home.(SP 1, 2, 3, 4,5, 6, 7)
  • Ø Guided Inquiry – WhichBonds Are best?: Students experimentally analyze salt and sugar to
    determine if ionic and covalent bonds are ber. Students will be able to perform this hands-on experiment at home.(SP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)
Chapter 11: Covalent Bonds
Big Idea 2:Chemical and physical properties of materials can be explained by the structure and the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules and the forces between them.

Topics:

  • Localized Electron Model
  • Resonance
  • Orbitals and interactions
  • Hybridization
  • Bond Order
  • Molecular Orbital Model

Resources:

  • 3 Textbook: 8.8-8.13,9.1-9.5
  • 3 PhET InteractiveSimulations
  • Activities:
  • v Students will useLewis diagrams and VSEPR to and make predictions about polarity.
  • v Students constructballoon models of the arrangement of pairs of electrons around a central atom. They then draw 2D pictures of these arrangements and apply these to predicting the shapes of molecules.

Labs:

  • Ø Molecular Shapes:Students are given a list of molecules. They are asked to draw the Lewis structure and predict the molecule’s shape using VSEPR theory. They check their answers using a 3-D modeling program at PhET.(SP 1, 6)
Chapter 12: Chemical Reactions
Big Idea 3:Changes in matter involve the rearrangement and/or reorganization of atoms and/or the transfer of electrons.

Topics:

  • Evidence of a chemical reaction
  • Types of chemical reactions
    • Synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double
      replacement, & combustion
    • Acid/base neutralization
    • Redox reactions
  • Molecular, ionic, and net equations
  • Balancing Chemical Eqns (including Redox)
  • Predicting Products
  • Reaction Stoichiometry
    • Mass-mass conversion
    • % yield
    • limiting reactant

Resources:

  • 3 Textbook: 3.7-3.10,4.4-4.10
  • 3 SAS CurriculumPathways
  • Activities:
  • v Use data from synthesis or decomposition of a compound to confirm the conservation of matter and the law of definite proportions.
  • v Students balance by
    the half- reaction method

Labs:

  • Ø Alka-SeltzerExperiment: Students will determine the mass percent of sodium bicarbonate found in Alka-Seltzer tablets using equipment in their home. Students will be able to perform this hands-on experiment at home.(SP 1, 2, 5, 6)
  • Ø CandleStoichiometry – Students will use experimental observations and measurements to perform calculations regarding the stoichiometry of burning a candle. Students will be able to perform this hands-on experiment at home.(SP 1, 2, 5, 6)
  • Ø PrecipitationReactions:Students use a virtual lab from SAS Curriculum Pathways to investigate precipitation reactions, balance chemical equations, and discover basic solubility rules. (SP 1, 2, 5, 6)
  • Ø Guided Inquiry – ExploringOxidation-Reduction Reactions: Students will design an experiment to order Cu, Mg, Zn, Al, and Fe from most to least easily oxidized. Students will be able to perform this hands-on experiment at home.(SP 1, 2, 3, 4,5, 6, 7)

Unit 4: Reaction Dynamics

Chapter 13: Kinetics
Big Idea 4:Rates of chemical reactions are determined by details of the molecular collisions.

Topics:

  • Reaction rates, rate law
  • PE diagrams
  • Reaction intermediates, rate determining step
  • Catalysts

Resources:

  • 3 Textbook: 12.1-12.8
  • 3 PhET InteractiveSimulations
  • Activities:
  • v Students createenergy diagrams to explain why catalysts and raising the temperature can increase the rate of a chemical reaction.
  • v Students will useexperimental data to calculate the kinetics of ozone depletion.
  • v Students will usethe same experimental data and their calculated reaction rates to determine the correct mechanism for ozone depletion.

Labs:

  • Ø Reaction Rates: Studentswill use a PhET virtual lab to determine experimentally how temperature, concentration, and activation energy change the rate of a reaction.(SP 1, 2, 3, 5, 6)
Chapter 14: Chemical Equilibrium
Big Idea 6:Any bond or intermolecular attraction that can be formed can be broken. These two processes are in a dynamic competition, sensitive to initial conditions and external perturbations.

Topics:

  • Chemical equilibrium is dynamic
  • Equilibrium constant
  • Reaction quotient
  • Solubility constant
  • Le Châtelier’s Principle

Resources:

  • 3 Textbook: 13.1-13.7,15.6-15.7
  • 3 IllustratedGuide to Home Chemistry Experiments
  • 3 ChemCollectiveVirtual Labs
  • Activities:
  • v Students determine the concentration of species at equilibrium given the equilibrium constant and the concentration of other species in the reaction at equilibrium.
  • v Students will apply Le Châtelier’s Principle qualitatively to equilibrium systems that are altered.

Labs:

  • Ø Guided Inquiry – Determinea Solubility Product Constant – Using the chemcollective virtual lab system, students will design experiments to calculate Ksp for four different ionic solids.(SP 1, 2, 5, 6)
  • Ø Cobalt Chlorideand LeChâtelier’s Principle:Students will use a chemcollective virtual
    lab to explore the equilibrium of the cobalt chloride reaction.(SP 1, 2, 5, 6)
Chapter 15: Acids and Bases
Big Idea 6:Any bond or intermolecular attraction that can be formed can be broken. These two processes are in a dynamic competition, sensitive to initial conditions and external perturbations.

Topics:

  • Properties of acids and bases
  • pH
  • Concentration
  • Neutralization reactions
    • Titrations
  • Buffers

Resources:

  • 3 Textbook:14.1-14.12, 15.1-15.8
  • 3 SAS CurriculumPathways
  • 3 IllustratedGuide to Home Chemistry Experiments
  • Activities:
  • v Students determinepH of various buffer solutions and describe the mechanism that would occur within the buffer system upon the addition of an acid or a base.
  • v Students researchacid rain, writing the chemical reactions that occur between the pollutants and the naturally occurring compounds.

Labs:

  • Ø Acid-BaseChemistry: Students will use a SAS Curriculum Pathways virtual lab to develop an understanding of acid-base titrations, titration curves, and associated calculations. (SP 1, 2, 3, 5, 6)
  • Ø QuantitativeAnalysis of Vitamin C by Acid-Base Titration – From Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments, students will use a titration to determine the amount of acid in a Vitamin C tablet. Students will be able to perform this hands-on experiment at home.(SP 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7)
Chapter 16: Energy that Drives Chemical Reactions
  • Big Idea 3: Changes in matter involve the rearrangement and/or reorganization of atoms and/or the transfer of electrons.
  • Big Idea 5: The laws of thermodynamics describe the essential role of energy and explain and predict the direction of changes in matter.

Topics:

  • Energy changes that occur during a reaction
  • Activation energy
  • Endothermic and exothermic reactions
  • Spontaneity
  • Electrochemistry

Resources:

  • 3 Textbook:16.1-16.9, 17.1-17.7
  • 3 ChemCollectiveVirtual Labs
  • Activities:
  • v Students willobserve videos of a selection of chemical reactions. For each reaction they will classify the type of reaction, write a balanced net ionic equation, describe the reaction, and determine the thermodynamic driving force for the reaction.

Labs:

  • Ø Cold Volcano:Students will use a coffee-cup calorimeter to calculate the change in enthalpy for the reaction between baking soda and vinegar. Students will be able to perform this hands-on experiment at home. (SP 1, 2, 5, 6)
  • Ø Camping ProblemI-III: Students will use a chemcollective virtual lab to measure the enthalpy of a reaction. The effect of changing the concentration of the reactants on the enthalpy will be measured and students will create solutions to produce a specific temperature. (SP 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7)
  • Ø Build a VoltaicCell: Students will build a voltaic cell at home to show how wet batteries work. Students will be able to perform this hands-on experiment at home. (SP 1, 2, 3, 5, 6)
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